Overcoming obstacles in the provision of cross-border public transport (CBPT) often requires the combination of several solutions. Literature and survey analyses show that this may include formal or legal action at regional, national or EU level, among which are bilateral agreements or the introduction of the European Cross-Border Mechanism (ECBM). However, in many cases, soft solutions are needed to overcome obstacles that are rooted in a lack of coordination or in structural differences. Such soft solutions may also facilitate further, more formal action.
There are various approaches to soft solutions. These include:
- more intense, structured and targeted collaboration between the relevant actors, which may, inter alia, provide the grounds for a joint cross-border CBPT strategy;
- pragmatic approaches to bridging a shared problem;
- coordination on fare systems that may ultimately lead to an integrated cross-border ticket system;
- stimulation of the demand for CBPT through awareness-raising, better information and coordination of public transport timetables.