A lack of fare system integration is among the most frequently mentioned negative effects resulting from legal or administrative obstacles for CBPT provision. The absence of integration may lead to higher fares for cross-border trips compared to domestic public transport use, or result in passengers bearing higher ticket costs due to a lack of information on cheaper tickets. Overcoming these effects may be principally achieved through stronger coordination of domestic fare systems. However, case studies illustrate that the concrete solutions may use a variety of approaches, often without achieving full cross-border tariff integration:
- The ‘Saarbahn’ case study on the rail link between Saarbrücken (Germany) and Sarreguemines (France) is an example of a full one-sided tariff integration with the system of the Saarland Transport association that covers the entire public transport system in Saarland. Thus, a single ticket can be used on the German side including the cross-border section and for further onward journeys on the French side special ticket options are available.
- The rail service between Lille (France) and Tournai (Belgium) illustrates how fare integration may benefit from cross-border entities more generally. The EGTC Eurometropolis Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai initiates and facilitates processes bringing together some 150 key players in the action group ‘cross-border mobility’. After abolishing the previous cross-border ‘Trampoline’ ticket, the Eurometropolis provided passenger information until new solutions could be introduced.
- The ‘Mozart-Express’ is a bus line between Reit im Winkl (Germany) and Salzburg (Austria) targeting tourists. Despite being operated by a provider that is a partner of the Salzburg Transport Association, this bus line is not subject to tariff integration with this association, but the provider sells specific in-house fare tickets. These include day tickets and a more widely eligible Bus-Pass as well as the use of the special guest card for overnight tourists who benefit from a particular discount.
- The rail service between Copenhagen (Denmark) and Malmö (Sweden) may in the future benefit from a joint Öresund fare system. The current system enables the buying of tickets for across the border and connecting them to some extent to local public transport on the other side. However, building on travel zones, passengers need to be aware of the final destination’s zone and the need for changes between modes of transport – both of which limit the use of the cross-border ticket.
Case studies illustrate many more approaches, including the consideration of price and income differences across the border, that may require different ticket models.